Disordered Thoughts
an appendix to Memory: A Proven Fact

Since the special self-sensing ability responsible for voluntary movements is these neurons' miracle property of nature, there is definitely an element of natural incapacity ( inability to perform without adequate training) and randomness (self-sensing can become or remain a random process where the brain sites self-selected could not truly be precisely or exactly located according to one's wishes) to this inherent neuronal magic. However, usually an organism can behave in a wilful manner, i.e. one can move the finger as one wished, lift the leg one wants to lift . . . . This is due to the very fact that anatomically the cortical sensorineurons innervating one part of the body( e.g., toes of the left leg) are closely linked to the cortical motoneurons for the same part of the body. As a result, it is conducive for sensations from or thoughts for one part [ of the body] to instantly activate that same bodily part: sensing one's own fingers being burned and instantly withdrawing them from fire is an extreme example of how one first senses one's own bodily part and from that sensation( and therefore from those cortical or central ganglionic sensorineurons receiving afferent impulses, i.e., sensing this sensation, from the peripheral pain and temperature receptors innervating that bodily part, here, the fingers ) issues commands ( in the form of nerve impulse inputs) into the cortical motoneurons[ for that same bodily part] to activate the muscles responsible for moving that part of the body,#FNT0 here, for withdrawing the fingers from fire.

In practice, this degree of selectivity is less well achieved in thought formation. Reasons for this discrepancy include these: 1)the brain has much greater numbers of neurons allocated for or available to modulate one single part of the body than there are available to one single thought or word, or syllable whereas there is almost an infinite number of words or thoughts retained and operating in a finite number of brain sensorineurons, the limited numbers of muscles for various bodily parts allow for a measurable brain volume
of cortical neurons to subserve each voluntary muscle;

2)hence, while it's exceedingly difficult for one single neuron to locate and select one single word or sentence( contained within itself) in formulating thoughts, it is far easier for one whole section of the cortical area to be located and selected for a specific muscle contraction; this is why only those with gross brain damages( i.e. , lots of neurons damaged) such as those with strokes would have voluntary movement difficulties, but those free from gross brain damages can still suffer from thought disorders;

3) because memories of one or several alphabets or words could be retained in one single or few neurons, often they would be difficult to locate and activate and therefore could be easily forgotten while formulating thoughts( i.e.
while trying to retrieve the right memories at the right moment of time for these memories to become an integral component of a thought ) or even during exhaustive search for them;

4) in contrast, since one specific area of the cortex containing millions of neurons are devoted to controlling one single bodily part such as a finger, the cumulative aggregate sensation for that part of the body would be comparatively(as compared to sensation for one specific word, or thought) intense or enormous; self-sensing and selecting that part would be relatively easy and actuating a muscle contraction by activating that brain part would be rather easy and more powerful than what few neurons for one single word could do; thus, an amnesiac not even knowing his own name always still can walk, talk, and perform all sorts of neuromusculoskeletal activities.

In nature, those having overcome the natural incapacity and randomness alluded to in the above became better thinking organisms for surviving a harsh environment. Snakes knowing when and how to hide would not be eaten by crocodiles, and man thinking better than others may elude conquest [by others]. This is why by this process of "the fittest survives" those remaining have carried this so-called natural trait for their brains to be able to think in a "sane" or logical or rational manner. Even the lower animals think in a logical fashion. So, when a mouse has seen me kill(murder) its mother, it would flee the moment it sees me. Similar to our ability to learn voluntary movements, we can selectively self-sense, activate and incorporate the right words into a thought or thoughts. This ability initially at the beginning of human and animal existence was rather limited. Some organisms "invented" a way of communication, walking, eating, hunting, etc. Then, others learned from them. By this learning process, over centuries all human and animal advantageous(to survival, etc.) thoughts or methods, or ways of thinking were taken in[ by the individuals] to further train the brain sensorineurons into thinking in a rational fashion. Thus, animals and humans alike can in this way think better and better, using the cumulative thoughts to further extend,improve and refine brain sensorineurons' natural ability to self-sense memories( which the thoughts also are) and selectively incorporate them into new( such as discovering or synthesizing new ideas) or old thoughts( such as in recalling a proverb).
Of course, recalling is usually easier than creating new thoughts. That is because memorization involves a neurofacilitation(e.g., post-tetanic potentiation, long-term potentiation, increasing cortical representation for the bodily parts being more frequently used
#FNT1, #FNT2 and therefore the more the memory-containing neurons are repeatedly used as in rehearsing , the more neural extension these neurons can generate to make self-sensing and activating them so much easier than before rehearsals, etc.) process whereby the related neural pathways and neuronal sites are continuously activated in a time-sequence specific manner. Hence, in recalling such memorized information( such as a sentence), these same train of neurons can be readily reactivated in an orderly manner for recalling( i.e. re-sensing) the information so stored in these same sensorineurons. However, creating new thoughts requires a grater degree of regulation over otherwise random memory pieces whose assemblage results in new sentences or thoughts. This is where some people with thought disorders suffer most.

These people such as some schizophrenics hereditarily lack or somehow have lost that natural neuronal ability to correctly sense and select the right memory pieces for incorporation into their thoughts, thus manifesting in thought blocks, poverty of ideas; thoughts made up of unrelated, irrelevant information( i.e. memory pieces without content relevance to the ideas being expressed); bizarre, irrational, or illogical thoughts, or even perceptual defects due to their inability to correctly interpret reality( which is the sensory perception of events outside)since their thought processes are disorganized, defective, and interpreting anything involves the formation of a series of thoughts, their interpretation of even the commonest events can turn out to be incomprehensible to a reasonable person. Their symptoms actually illustrate the underlying processes for thought formation: the random re-sensing and selection of relevant or correct memory pieces for incorporation into sentences or thoughts. And, because this is the process of thought formation, those having difficulty in achieving perfection in formation of logical or content-relevant thoughts would have shown their ideas being a random assemblage of often irrelevant memory pieces, a mechanism shared by but more perfect in others.

As explained and shown, thought formation is indeed similar to but more sophisticated and more difficult than the process of sensing and selecting the desired central motoneurons for firing to achieve orderly voluntary movements. Both represent what best, though not necessarily normally( i.e., since random thought formation is a natural process so occurring in the sensing and self-sensing neurons, the failure for them to synthesize logical thoughts is not necessarily abnormal but, from that perspective of nature, can be quite a normal and yet less-than-perfect natural process.), can be achieved through self efforts by organisms' repeated potentiation of these natural neuronal abilities. Once more, even thought formation by these random, and later [ through learning and practice] more and more well organized orderly, re-sensing and selection of the various memory pieces depends on, and, can be and is achieved only through the self ability to sense and later even selectively re-sense and select the stored eMs(memory particles) because the sensory and therefore memory neurons can sense only eMs transmitted into them in special nerve impulses or brain wave-frequency electromagnetic forces.
Cheng Research Institutes:Vol 1R, direct electronic input into the brain

Incredible as it may seem,
the impossible has been proven!

"The walking academy"



If you need internet neuroscience resources, e.g. neuroanatomy; after finishing this site, go to Neuroscience Web Search (10/ 1 /1998)



0. KC Cheng, The Electromagnetism of Memory, Mentation and Behaviour, volumes 13- 19.

1. WF Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, 17th ed., (Norwal, Conn.), 1995, pp 246, 249.

2. KC Cheng, The Electromagnetism of Memory, Mentation, and Behaviour, volumes 6-19.