The direct causal relationship between the evoking flickering white light and the cortical electrical voltage confirms several of the most vital facts of memory formation already established by other means in my earlier writings:

1) the photons from the stimulating pulsing light actually do enter into the [brain] visual cortical neurons, making the visual cortex the primary site of visual memory storage(and therefore the auditory cortex the primary site of auditory memory storage, etc.(7), something predicted much earlier(17) and being further traced in Memory and Colour Vision (this issue): this is why when the white soft evoking lights are at the rate of 13.25 hertz, the visual cortical neurons gave off "quick bursts of electricity with exactly the same frequency;" when the stimulus is no more than light itself, the resulting increases in visual cortical neuron discharges can be attributed only to the photonic energy input into the visual pathways without the light energy input, there would never have been this type of corresponding rises in visual cortical neuron discharge of electrical bursts; if and when the latter had exactly the same frequency( of pulse, i.e. on and off, not in any way altering the frequency of the light corpuscles themselves; hence, a green light remains green despite its pulse rate or any change in its pulse rate; the same with brainwaves: though they might show a pulse rate the same as that of the external stimulating white light, they still remain electromagnetic waves in the range of brainwave frequencies or wavelengths) as the stimulating white light, evidently the source light can effectively determine the frequency of neuronal electrical discharge and therefore the incident light can be effectively input in a rather direct manner into the central sensorineurons(Fig. 5, this issue):

2) the brain is a living organ taking in, storing and emitting eMs;

3) therefore, when the afferent eMs representing stimuli to the sensory nervous system (e.g. sound, light, etc.) can be and are normally being sensed by central sensorineurons into which they enter (Fig.7), only when these eMs are retained inside the brain sensorineurons either in their original selves or in their mirror copies can an organism or person have a memory of what has been just sensed; hence, it is now self-evident that eMs remain in the brain cells as memory particles for retrieval, re-sensing(i.e. recalling) and thought(including decision ) formation and command issuing(issuing commands to direct wilful behaviour), and also for telepathic communication;

4) there is a total consistency in and between the material(i.e. physical or chemical) and functional aspects of memory input, retention, reuse and output: eM input sensed by the neurons, eMs retained in the sensing central neurons for recollection, thought formation and directing wilful locomotion;
there has been no and can be no other material substance entering into the central sensorineurons to be so sensable and retainable as memory;

5) therefore, memory can be no other than the specific eMs representing or arising from the sensation-causing and hence, memory-causing source stimuli
( i.e. only those having being sensed can be remembered, and sensing in itself is instantaneous remembering or instantaneous memory(14);

6) that being the case, when eMs must be able to and do escape from the brain cells as well as evidenced by the continuous emission of brainwaves from living brains, telepathy becomes something to be recognized and accepted as an unavoidable natural phenomenon, not something mysterious or without scientific foundation; and, when telepathy does occur, it means memory pieces can only be eMs or could not be carried in the brainwaves for transmission into others' brains; because photonic input increases brain neuron emission as scalp microelectricity, the eMs channelled into and sensed by the central sensorineurons can be partly retained in and partly emitted by these central sensorineurons(memorineurons)--- in fact, the direct relationship between light input and visual cortical scalp electrical discharge quoted above reflects the quantitative relationship of "when strong enough, the more eM input, the more loss through the scalp," so that only a sufficient quantity is retained, if any at all, inside the brain neurons as memory traces;

7) the re-emitted eMs contained in the scalp electricity, however, is in a processed form, carried in brainwave electromagnetic forces, not in the original simple visible light form( that is why, while the external stimulating white light is visible, the eMs in the visual cortical brainwaves over the scalp are invisible to the naked eyes);
though invisible[to the naked eyes], these eMs contained in the brainwave electromagnetic waves when strong enough can be received and sensed by other brains in the same way one senses one's own thoughts: the scientific basis of telepathy.

Additional mechanisms and principles of brain operations were illustrated by other laboratory observations. In one case of mind control over a lamp, two electrodes on the skull were linked to an amplifier and transmitter for the brainwaves to control the switch. When relaxed with eyes closed, scientist LK raised his brainwave voltage from 0.9 to 3.5 mV, thus turning on a lamp across the room. On his opening the eyes, his brainwave voltage dropped and the light was switched off. It was found that there were such electric device-controlling brain signals, whose control could be facilitated by physical movements, which 95% of the people could naturally regulate without training. #FNT0 This kind of mind self-control therefore is identical in mechanism to T's success in suppressing or raising his visual cortical brainwave response to the stimulating white light cited above. There, the experimenter JS said respecting how T can suppress or intensify the voltage of a specific electrical frequency in his brain, " No one really knows. . .. Just as with any learned response, the exact mechanism is difficult to put into words. . . the more successfully they control the simulator, the less able they are to explain how they do it."19

Since brainwaves, like all electromagnetic forces can be so amplified, boosting a person's brainwaves can enable that person's brainwaves to effectively stimulate other people's brains in the same way one's own thoughts which are also l in the electromagnetic form, stimulate one's own sensorineurons. Just like one's ability to sense one's own thoughts, sufficiently strong brainwaves from another cause the recipients to detect and "read" the other person's thoughts. This scientific mechanism makes
electronic telepathy a natural or unavoidable phenomenon: If someone's brainwaves are being boosted and broadcast, it is only normal, inescapable for others having a brain inside their skull to detect and read that person's ongoing mental activities such as thinking, sensing, etc. Clearly, contrary to some misconception of ignorance, electronic telepathy is not something occurring mysteriously, but rather scientifically: where there are live brains and electricity, there can easily be electronic telepathy.

The other observation, a person's natural ability to select, selectively, suppress or enhance one's own specific or particular components of brainwaves to activate electric devices goes to the very heart of learning and exercising wilful behaviour.

As we all know and alluded to in my earlier work,
16 unless as all animals and humans we do selectively activate various components of the central motoneural network(such as the motor and pre-motor cortices in man), there can be no voluntary or organized locomotion; only bizarre, meaningless, disorganized movements would be possible. But since we all normally can achieve voluntary and typically premeditated movements, we all normally can selectively activate different and various parts of our central motor system in a timed and time-specific manner. This skill is improved and consolidated through practise: "Practise makes perfect," indicating and consistent with the long known neural facilitation: the more a neural pathway is used, the greater the numbers of neural connections and extensions that path acquires. In addition, practise recruits more and more neurons into accomplishing that same task, making it easier and easier to selectively activate that larger and larger sensory ( to activate and direct the responsible central motor neurons for this task) and motor neuron pool. On the other hand, once parts of these vital brain centres are damaged by say, strokes, tumours, trauma, etc., the victims suffer from impairment in voluntary movements, once more confirming the neurological fact that wilful locomotions are regulated by the self's correct selective activation of the various central sensory and motor areas and their related pathways.

And, since in the "mind controlling electric devices" experiments 95% of the normal could naturally selectively control their specific brain electrical activities, they actually demonstrated man's and other animals'
natural ability to select specific brain areas for activation to the desired levels.

Being able to do so means being able to select which parts of the central (usually cortical, sometimes ganglionic) motor neuronal pools to be activated and enhanced, and which parts to be suppressed, at any given moment in time.

In this way, an animal or a person would be able to decide what to do and accordingly select the right brain parts for temporally proper sequential activation or deactivation, resulting in planned and organized skillful movements. Even animals can do so. Otherwise, all dogs would be rabid, and all cats attacking their masters.

This is where the electromagnetism of memory again comes into play. Only when memory is eMs retainable and retained by the central sensorineurons has it been possible for learning to occur. From visual, auditory, and other relevant sensory inputs, an organism comes to learn about the external environment, e.g. cats learning to love their masters. Because eMs at the time of input into the brain sensory neurons are being so sensed, their continued existence in these sensorineurons allows for their re-sensing which paves the way for thought formation an organism's sensing one's own memory pieces formed into trains of thought. Once thoughts are formed, decisions can be made: decisions are merely thoughts formed respecting relevant information which is thoughts or memories themselves. In other words, the electromagnetic nature of memory pieces has made it possible for the brain cells to first store memories, assemble them into thoughts and make decisions. Once decisions are made; as shown in the above, an organism possesses that natural ability, which surely increases with training, to selectively activate different parts of the central sensory and motor neural networks to bring about the desired, premeditated movements, such as a tiger striking a water buffalo after careful planning. It thinks, decides, and then carries out selective activation and deactivation of various parts of its sensori-motor cortical areas to accomplish this kill. Only organisms capable of such learning, selective activation of their own central motor areas could ever achieve this kind of wilful locomotion. Now, since all normal animals with few exceptions exhibit organized wilful or purposeful movements, they all, not just the humans, operate by the electromagnetic mechanisms of memory intake, storage and therefore learning, and subsequent willed control of movements described in the above.

That the animals also, not just man, possess this unique neuronal ability to self-modulate the time, duration, and selected sites of their own activation, enhancement and suppression attests to the biological reality that animals' and man's fascinating organized wilful movements are not directed by gods or spirits but by the brain or central ganglionic neurons themselves. Especially when aggregated into large masses, these central sensory and motor neurons can through memory acquisition( seeing, hearing, feeling, touching, rehearsing, thinking. . ..), storage, retrieval and recombination sense and use their own memory contents, which as proven in the above can only be eMs(Fig 7), to achieve wilful behaviour under their own, these neurons' own, direction. This magical ability to self-modulate has been, as alluded to in the above, ascertained to be an inborn miracle of nature.
It is an actual realization of something seemingly impossible. However impossible it may seem, obviously it is occurring. Otherwise, no animals or humans could ever have demonstrated any wilful behaviour. We would all have remained as primitive in locomotion or thinking as the viruses and bacteria or fungi, not even as sophisticated as the ants, bees, flies. Anyone insisting that this miracle property is not one component of animal and human brain or central ganglionic neurons' natural constitution is letting one's own subjective skepticism or prejudice blind oneself to reality and the truth, as blind as denying memory being eMs or insisting that the apes were our great grandpas.#FNT1
There is an infinite number of eMs in the universe and operating in the perceptual and memory systems of the various organisms, and there is that sensing ingredient in the "electrically active" central sensory and motor neurons. When the two come together, the resulting interaction(Fig.7) produces sensations and memories of those objects having successfully input their own or representing eMs into these neurons. As these processes continue, the organism through the plasticity of the neurons gains the ability to recognize the familiar(i.e. things perceived before), gather eMs into thoughts, and through learning( which is also memory formation and reuse) the self's and others' cumulative knowledge, turn thoughts into intellectual faculties for the self to behave in a logical or civilized or intelligent manner.16 Here, it has been shown eMs as input sensations, stored memories, self-sensed thoughts(Fig. 7), and detected telepathy emitted from others(Fig.1) total consistency (1) in what memory has to be in all aspects of its input#FNT2 and function in a living brain, (2) in the central sensorineurons' ability to sense eMs properly input into them by any one of the unique methods: afferent nerve impulse input, or telepathic input, or from other interconnected brain sensorineurons or from within the sensing brain neurons themselves, and (3) in the intensification of sensations and their memories during the learning process to acquire and perfect voluntary activities particularly those in the form of learned skills.#FNT3 When memory being eMs satisfies all these essential functional requirements and account for all mental activities, it has been proven to be a scientific truth,a fact, no longer just a theory that memory is eMs of those representing or directly arising from the objects of which the memory has been formed or used. It can not be anything else! The living laboratories, namely the brains functioning in the living, have spoken!

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0. A. Craig, The Globe & Mail, 17/5/1996, p A 15

1. KC Cheng, Cheng Review, I:2. p10, 1997.

2 K. C. Cheng, The Electromagnetism of Memory, Mentation and Behaviour, vols 1R(inst/med/mem/m-1Rs) ( in preparation) & 2.

3 KC Cheng, Cheng Review, I:4. p1, 1998.